Japan, S. Korea
"European pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia buolinana) frequently kills terminal growth of young trees, resulting in irregularly formed trees. Japanese black pine is also susceptible to red-pine scale (Matsucoccus resinosae)." 
"Niwaki is a term that translates as “sculpted tree”, but the word is also used as a pruning style that is used on most plants grown in a traditional Japanese garden. In Japanese gardens, symbolism is everything. The raked gravel is a representation of the sea, the stones represent the mountinous islands and the trailing juniper the greenery of the main island. The lone Japanese black pine is a stand in for the forest." 
"Japanese black pine had been among the best species for planting along Northeastern seashores until about 1990. The species has suffered from insects and diseases and has fallen rapidly in esteem."
 (2002). JAPANESE BLACK PINE Pinus thunbergii. USDA NRCS Northeast Plant Materials Program. https://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_pith2.pdf
 Plant of the Week: Pinus thunbergii; Japanese Black Pine. UAEX Cooperative Extension Service. https://www.uaex.edu/yard-garden/resource-library/plant-week/Pinus-thunbergii-Japanese-Black-Pine-12-21-2017.aspx